Ngoro dzemabhiza: nhoroondo, mhando uye mashandisiro

Ngoro dzemabhiza

Ngoro dzemabhiza dziri ngoro dzakagadzirwa nebhokisi hombe iyo inogona kuve nemhando dzakasiyana uye iri pamavhiri maviri kana mana. Ngoro dzaishandiswa kubvira makare-kare kutakura zvinhu kana vanhu.

Rudzi urwu rwekutakura yakanga ichiderera mukushandisa kwayo nechitarisiko chemotokari. Parizvino, anoshandiswa kunyanya pazviitiko kana zviitiko zvakakosha, semamwe mapato kana michato, kushandiswa kwayo kunowanzoitika yezvinangwa zvekushanya kana, izvo zvakakosha zvakanyanya, zvinogona kuoneka yakashandurwa kuita zvidimbu zvemuseum.

Zvishoma zvenyu nhoroondo

Ngoro yebhiza seakadaro, iyo ine bhokisi rakarembedzwa pamabote kana yakaiswa pazvitubu, iine madhoo maviri edivi, nemahwindo egirazi uye nezvigaro zvevanhu vaviri, vana kana kupfuura, Inoonekwa kutenderedza zana ramakore rechiXNUMX. Pamberi peino nguva kwaitove neimwe mhando yekutakura yakadhonzwa nemaequines, inonyatso kuzivikanwa ngoro dzevaRoma semuenzaniso. Kunyangwe pasina kupokana iyo huru inotangira ndiyo mota, yatichataura nezvayo gare gare.

Kune zvidzidzo nzvimbo iyoyo pakati pa1546 na1554 kusvika kweye yekutanga ngoro yebhiza muIberian Peninsula. Kubva ipapo zvichienda mberi vanga vava kuwana mukurumbira.

Kushandisa kwavo kwakapararira zvekuti kwakazosvika padanho ravaifanira kurambidzwa mune dzimwe nzvimbo, mashandisiro avo airambidzwa kana kurambidzwa kwakaitwa pane mamwe marudzi engoro yakadhonzwa neimwe nhamba yemabhiza. Vakavhoterwa kune humwe hunhu; mamwe marudzi ezvigadzirwa akagadzwa kana kurambidzwa mukushongedza kwengoro pachayo, nezvimwe.

Zvose kurambidzwa uku kwaive kuchinja kweanopfuura makore mazana maviri, vamwe vakabviswa panguva imwe chete apo kurambidzwa kwakasiyana kwakamuka. Mienzaniso mishoma yezvirambidzo izvi ndeiyi:

  • Muna 1578, Felipe II akarambidza kuva nengoro dzemabhiza kunze kwekunge dzaizodhonzwa nemabhiza mana aive emuridzi wengoro.
  • Muna 1600 Philip III, akabvumira ngoro idzodzo nengoro kudhonzwa nemabhiza maviri.
  • Carlos II muna 1678, yairambidza kushandiswa kwezvikwata uye zvimwe zvingoro, pamusoro pekurambidza kushandiswa kwemanyurusi nevarume.
  • Muna 1785 Carlos III, zvakarambidza kushandiswa kweanopfuura mahesera maviri kana mabhiza mune rua ngoro.

Buggy

Mhando dzengoro dzemabhiza

Nechimiro chayo kana basa, ngoro dzemabhiza dzinogona kukamurwa kuva:

  • Road mota, yaive iyo inoitirwa nzendo refu nekuda kwekugadzirwa kwayo kwakanyanya kune vafambi.
  • Makola mota, yakadhonzerwa nemanyurusi akashongedzwa nemakorari, saka zita racho.
  • Kumhanya bhodhi mota, ndiye ane zvigaro pamusuwo.
  • Chipo mota kana Rúa mota, kushandiswa kwemamafambo marefu mukati memataundi nekuti kune mamwe marudzi emabasa kana nzendo, imwe mhando yemota yaive yakasununguka.
  • Tsvimbo motaInotakura matanda maviri pakati payo inosungirirwa bhiza rakasungirirwa.
  • Beam mota, yakafanana neiyo yapfuura, asi pachinzvimbo chematanda ine danda pazasi.
  • Nickel mota, Yaive yekuroja asi kwete neiyo nzira mota show.

Nzira dzinodhonzwa nemabhiza

Nguva dzakasiyana uye nemabasa akasiyana siyana ayo nzira dzekufambisa dzakadhonzwa nemabhiza dzakapfuura, dzakatisiyira nhamba yakakura yezvakasiyana typologies muchimiro uye zita. Ngatisvikei pakuziva mamwe acho:

Wagon

Isu tinotanga nengoro, yakatangira yekutakura bhiza uye, nekudaro, imwe yenzira dzechinyakare-kudhonzwa nemabhiza. Iyo inoumbwa nebhokisi diki pane maviri kana mana mavhiri. Bhokisi racho chinhu chinogamuchirwa kwaitorwa zvekutengesa kana vanhu uye iro rinozorora rakananga pamavhiri kana pane imwe nzira yekumisa izvo zvakasiyana zvichienderana nenzvimbo nenguva. Munyika umo yakawanda yemwedzi inowanzove nechando, mota dzakarongedzwa pamateyiti, kuita mhando yemaslede.

Motokari anosvika kuEurope mumireniyamu yechina BC uye yaive ichichinja mune akasiyana typologies ane mazita akasiyana uye mashandisiro, pakati payo ingoro yebhiza. Maererano netsika dzenzvimbo iyi, vaigona kudhonzwa nemabhiza, manyurusi, mombe, mbongoro kana dzimwe mhuka, kunyangwe nevanhu.

Ngoro yemabhiza

Kune ngoro yakavharwa-mavhiri maviri yeimwe yakawanda kana isingashande jira uye yakapusa zvinhu inonzi Carromato.

Kuyangarara

Ndicho ngoro huru kwazvo yebhiza, zvakafanana nesaloon asi kupfekedzwa zvakapfuma uye zvinonetesa. Akatakura matochi mana, rimwe mukona yega yega uye mativi ese akavharwa negirazi. Takanga tichienda yakadhonzwa nemabhiza mana, mashanu kana anopfuura akange akarongwa muchimiro chepfumo.

Pakutanga yaive mota yemauto, asi yakashanduka uye muzana ramakore regumi nemaviri, iine zvidimbu zvidiki, yakave mota yakasarudzika uye mucherechedzo wesimba rehupfumi uye chinzvimbo munharaunda. Yakava yakanyanya fashoni pakati pemambokadzi.

Nhasi inoshandiswa nemhuri dzehumambo kumhemberero huru.

Kuyangarara

Ngoro

Pamwe rimwe remazwi anoshandiswa zvakanyanya, pamwe nengoro, kutaura nezve ngoro dzemabhiza uye kunyangwe kutsanangura zvavari, ndeizvo: ngoro.

Isu tese tine zano diki mupfungwa rekuti chingoro chinotaridzika sei, asi unoziva iyo mhando dzakasiyana dzemhando dzengoro zviripo? Mamwe ndeaya: Berlina, Biga, Estate, Brougham, Coupe, Stagecoach, Phaeton, Galera, Jardinera, Mateo, Simón, Victoria, nezvimwe. Pakati pavo vese, ngatiratidzei ina:

Sedan

Ngoro ine bhokisi rakavharwa zvachose, iri chikamu chepamusoro chequadrangular, nepo chikamu chepazasi chiri chakatenderera kana chimiro chechikepe Ine nzvimbo yezvigaro zvina uye magonhi ane girazi. Zita rerudzi urwu rwengoro rinouya kubva kuBerlin, iro guta kunobva ngoro dzekutanga dzinodhonzwa nemabhiza.

Sedan

Kushingairira

Ngoro yemugwagwa ine bhokisi raive nemavhiri mana. Muchikamu chepamusoro vaive nechituko chekuisa mukwende wevafambi. Kuseri kwedhaivhiti, uye pamusoro pemba yengoro uye pamberi pechituko chataurwa pamusoro apa, paive nekomboni, chigaro chakachinjika, chakavhurwa kumberi uye nenzvimbo yevanhu vatatu. Stagecoaches aishandiswa senzira yekufambisa nguva dzose pakati pemataundi maviri zvichitevera nzira yakatarwa. Ndiani asina kumbobvira aona kubirwa kwechikwata mumufirimu wemombe?

Kushingairira

 

Galley

Ngoro yakakura kwazvo yakarongedzwa pamakumbo mana uye mukati umo mune zvigaro zvevanhu vatanhatu kana vasere. Chivharo chemucheka unodzivirira zvakanyanya waibatwa nemhete dzematanda netsanga dzakabuda mumativi. Pamberi nepamberi pekuvhura paigona kuvharwa nemaketeni.

Galley

Victoria

Ngoro yakaderera pamakumbo mana. Iine musuwo mativi ese, akarongedzwa pakati pemavhiri. Iyo yekufukidza ine inodzoserwa hood kana awning. Ine nzvimbo yezvigaro zviviri. Bhokisi rakanamirwa kumberi yakatarwa ine gooseneck fittings uye kune zvakare kune chigaro chefambisi chinogara pane fender, nzvimbo yemutyairi. Muchikamu chepestante inogona kutora chigaro chetsoka.

Victoria

 

Quadriga 

En Humambo hweRoma nguva, ngoro yaive ngoro inodhonzwa nemabhiza mana mumutsara, saka izita rayo. Yaive nzira yekufambisa anoshandiswa nemauto eRoma pavakapinda mumaguta mukukunda. Ichi ndicho chikonzero nei mazhinji emaburi ekukunda aripo akapfekedzwa korona nengoro.

Bhokisi diki raimbove naro nzvimbo yemunhu mumwe asi pakanga pasina zvigaro, munhu uyu akabata matinji akamira.

quadriga

Izvo zvakasiyana nemabhiza maviri pachinzvimbo chechina, inonzi biga, yaitove yakashandiswa munguva dzevaGiriki nevaIjipita.

Landau

Mukati mezvingoro zvebhiza, the landau ndeimwe yeakanakisa. Inofungidzirwa yakasarudzika, ingoro yakavharika ine bhokisi rinoenda nemavhiri mana. Inogona kuve yakavhurika uye yakavharwa. Mukati, zvigaro zvakarongedzwa zvakafanana.

Landó bhiza rinotakura

sulky

Iyo sulky kana sulki ndeye chingoro chidiki chinoshandiswa kumaruwa kubva kumakona mazhinji epasi, kutakura mumwe kana vaviri vafambi kazhinji. Izvo zve morphology uye dhizaini yakapusa uye yakapusa. 

Bhokisi rakarongedzwa pamavhiri maviri mahombe. Bhiza rinobatana nebhokisi rakapfupika uye nekudaro rinoenda pakati pemakumbo emutyairi, ane tsoka dzinotsigirwa nemabhureki akarongedzwa kumatanda anobata mhuka.

sulky

Musungo

Ndicho diki ngoro ine bhokisi rakarongedzwa pamavhiri maviri. Chigaro chemutyairi ibhodhi rakarongedzwa rakabatanidzwa mubhokisi uko rinosangana nemubato wakarurama. Ane domed deck. Kumberi yakavharwa nebhodhi iro rinowanzo kuve nemakristani maviri. Kune rimwe divi, musana wakavharwa nemusuwo.

Musungo

Kwayaka: wikimedia

veTroika

Iyo inzira ye chinyakare kutakura kweRussia, mune matatu mabhiza anodhonza sleigh.

Iyo yaigona kusvika pakati pe45 ne50 km / h, iyo yezana ramakore rechi XNUMX -XNUMX yakanga iri kumhanya kukuru. Izvi zvakasarudzika, kwazviri yakabatana nekufamba-kure-kure. 

veTroika

Ndinovimba iwe wakanakidzwa nekuverenga ichi chinyorwa zvakanyanya sekuita kwandakaita kuchinyora.


Izvo zviri muchinyorwa zvinoomerera pamisimboti yedu ye tsika dzekunyora. Kuti utaure chikanganiso tinya pano.

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  1. Inotarisira iyo data: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Chinangwa cheiyo data: Kudzora SPAM, manejimendi manejimendi.
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