Quarter Horse

Quarter mamaira kota

Quarter bhiza, kana Quarter bhiza, iri mhando dzemabhiza dzinobva muUnited States dzinonyanya kukodzera kumitambo mipfupi (mazana mana emamita), yemarudzi ese emakwikwi uye kuratidzira kunoenderana nemadhodhi uye sebhiza remombe. Ndiyo rudzi rwakaenzana nemhuka dzinonyanya kunyoreswa pasi rose, vanopfuura mamirioni mana, izvi zvinoita kuti ive yeakanyanya kufarirwa.

Izvo zvinotaurwa nezvake kuti ndiye bhiza reaya mombe uye varimi vanogara uye vanofa vakatasva mabhiza avo. Tinomuziva zvishoma here?

Zviri sei?

Mafupa akasimba, mhasuru ine simba uye kureba kuri pakati pe 142 cm ne 163 cm, Quarter Horse ine rakakura chipfuva uye rakakomberedza rump. Musoro wayo mudiki une mbiri yakatwasuka, ine nzeve ipfupi uye inofamba kwazvo, pamwe nemeso ane hupenyu anoapa kuratidzwa kwehungwaru. Chinhu chisingagari mukuonekwa chete, sezvo zvichitaurwa nezvavo kuti vanogona kufungidzira vavariro dzemutasvi wavo kuti vafambe nekukurumidza munzvimbo shoma. Izvi zvinoita iyo yakanaka cowboy equine, Kwete chete nekuda kwekugona kwake kukwira, asi nekuti mukuwedzera kune mumhanyi akanakisa mumadaro marefukuve ne kushomeka kwakanyanya kunzira refu Kana zvakakodzera.

Izvo zvakare iri mhuka yakanaka kwazvo kushanda nemombe uye iyo ine akadzikama hunhu, anofambidzana uye anonzwisisa, anofarira kugara nevanhu.

akati wandei mamaira-mamaira

Mabhiza eKota, vanogona kuve nechero mhando yerudzi rwejasi. Tinogona kuwana chero ehembe dzekutanga: nhema, shava, chestnut uye chestnut; mhando dzakasiyana dzakasanganiswa sekirimu, dun, champagne uye pearl. Uye zvakare, mune dzimwe nguva kutinhira uye mapatani enhema anoonekwa, kana iwo mavara akashatiswa, ayo akambosiyiwa uye nhasi akabvumidzwa mune izvo zvienzaniso zvine mhando dzakachena dzinoratidzwa. Iyo inowanzo rara ndiyo saura kana sorrel (yehutsvuku hue) siyana «sorrel»ndokuti, manes eruvara rwakafanana nebvudzi remuviri (kune vamwe izvi zvakasiyana zvinoreva manes akagezwa, asi izvi handizvo).

Mitengo mukati meKota yeMira zvinoenderana nekushandisa kwavo

Bhiza rekuMadokero («Stock mhando»), inoshandiswa kumakwikwi ehushe, akachekwa uye akapatsanurwa, kubatanidza mhuru, kubatanidza, steer kugogodza, kuve iyo yakatemwa uye yakaparadzaniswa panomira rudzi urwu.

Ratidza bhiza («Halter mhando»), mune iyo yakanyanyisa musculature inokunda, ichichengeta musoro mudiki uye wakanatswa. Kureba kuri pakati pe154 kusvika 163 cm uye huremu hunogona kusvika 546 kg.

Racehorse ("Mujaho uye mhando yemuvhimi"), Ivo vanowanzove nehurefu hwakareba uye makumbo marefu, asi pavanomira pakusava nekuita kwakasimba kunoenderana kunovabvumira ivo kukurumidza kumhanyisa. Iwo makwikwi anoitirwa zviri pamutemo kumijaho yemitambo ine gumi nembiri, parizvino inozivikanwa neAmerican Quarter Horse Association (AQHA), kubva ku Makiromita mazana maviri nemakumi maviri nemakumi masere.

Zvishoma zvenyu nhoroondo

Tisati tatanga kutaura nezvekwakabva Quarter Horse, isu tichaenda kutumidza nekutsanangura zvishoma zvimwe zvezvakaitika zvechiitiko zvakakonzera, kuwedzera kune aya equines, huwandu hwakawanda hwemhando dzemabhiza dzazvino.

Inenge pakati pemakore 711 kusvika 726, kupinda kwevaMuslim kweIberian Peninsula kwakaitika. Ndipo ipapo, apo maviri emhando dzakasimba kwazvo dzeequine mukuvambwa kwemarudzi matsva, paakasvika muEurope: bhiza reArabian neBerber kubva kuNorth Africa. Ose ane basa rakakosha mumabhiza eSpanish, Portuguese neFrance.

Mazana emakore anoverengeka gare gare, Muna 1519, Hernán Cortés akasvika muNyika Idzva aine mabhiza makumi matatu nemaviri, pakati pavo paive nevakabva kuGuadalquivir Valley kana kuMarismas nemabhiza akabva kune maArabu nemaBerbers. Iyo nyaya inotevera inozivikanwa zvishoma zvirinani, mamwe mabhiza akatiza, kuve maroon mabhiza aiberekana nekupararira mukondinendi yose. Mhando dzakasiyana dzeequines dzakabuda kubva kumabhiza emusango kunge Mustang.

Pakasvika 1800, mabani ekumadokero kweUnited States aive akazara nemapoka emusango emabhiza, kwaibva mavhinga e maIndia ekuAmerica, , que Vakadzidza kudzikamisa, vakava vatasvi vemabhiza vakanaka, uye vakatanga kubereka mabhiza. Ivo vaive vakanaka magene uye vakaita muchinjiko wakasiyana kuti vawane mabhiza ari nani ehondo nebasa. Muenzaniso wakanaka ibhiza repinto, rinozivikanwa se "Bhiza reIndia."

Quarter Mile Herd

Zvimwe zviitiko zvezvakaitika zvine hunyanzvi paQuarter Mile aive echirungu neFrance kukoroni kumatunhu ekuchamhembe. Nekusvika kweChirungu, hatisi kureva kuunza vaChirungu Kukwikwidzana navo, iyo nhangemutange yakanga isati yavepo saizvozvo.

MuEurope mune zvese, kwete chete MuEngland, Zvaisawanzo kuve nemabhiza kana iwe usina kupfuma, sezvo maequine aidhura kwazvo. Nekudaro, avo vaive nemhuka idzi vainzi "Knights", avo vaidzishandisawo muhondo. Aya maequines aifanira kutsigira kwete chete huremu hwemutasvi wavo asiwo hwezvombo zvavo, saka iwo aive mabhiza mahombe akafanana neanomhanyisa mabhiza. Uye kune rimwe divi, zvekutama kwavakaita vaive nemamwe mabhiza madiki senge iyo Connemara yeIreland kana iyo Galloway yeScotland. Izvi, kunyangwe zviripo vadiki, ivo vaive mhasuru, yakasimba, yakasununguka yekutasva bhiza uye nehunhu hunhu.

Imwe pfungwa yekuisa mundangariro ndeyekuti vazhinji vevagari veChirungu vaive vanhu veguta vachitsvaga ramangwana riri nani uye kuti kana vaine bhiza, raive rimwe rezvehupfumi.

Uye zvakare kune izvi zvese, isu tinofanirwa kuwedzera chirevo chekuti mabhiza erudzi rweChirungu, akanakisa, aisakwanisa kubva munyika kuti aberekere muNyika Itsva. Uku kurambidzwa kwaive kwekuona kuchena kwerudzi uye chimwe chinhu chiri kushanda nanhasi mune dzimwe nyika, senge mabhiza eIceland.

A mabhiza aya akaunzwa neChirungu, Zvakaitika kwavari zvakafanana neizvo zvevaSpanish, vakapukunyuka kana kusunungurwa uye vakapinda mumapoka akatosimbiswa emabhiza emusango.

Chimwe chokwadi icho chinofanirwa kuverengerwa kune MaChirungu ndiyo iyo Vakaendesa rudo rwavo rwemujaho wemabhiza kuenda kuAmerica, uko mujaho wepfupi mujaho waitova wakakurumbira.

mujaho wekota bhiza

Kushaikwa kwezvivakwa zvakaitiswa mapfupi makota mamaira (402 metres anenge) ive yakakurumbira, sezvo ndiko kwaive kuyerwa kwakajairika kwemigwagwa yemataundi mazhinji, uye kuita mujaho wemabhiza zvaingodiwa chete kubvumirana kuti wakatanga pakutanga kwemugwagwa uye ndokuguma pakupera kwawo.

Munenge muna 1730, makoloni ane mari akatenga mabhizimusi echiChirungu Akakwikwidzana uye kukwikwidzana nemaAmerican mares. Rimwe remabhiza ane mukurumbira aive Janus, muzukuru waGodolphin Arabian, akaberekwa muna 1746 uye akaunzwa kuVirginia naJohn Randolph muna 1756.

Haugone kutaura izvozvo Janus ndiye bhiza rakavamba mujaho weQuarter-Mile, asi rake vana vaive vakaomeswa uye vane simba, vaizokanganisa zvakanyanya rudzi rutsva urwu.

Rimwe bhiza rakakosha zvikuru raive Changamire archy, akazvarwa muna 1805, ane vazukuru vake ndivo vane simba zvakanyanya mukusimudzira mujaho weQuarter Mile. Cooper Pazasi, Simbi Guruva uye Shilo vaizove vana izvo dzaive nekukosha zvakanyanya sezvo ari emabhiza kuti ivo vakavamba iyo Quarter Mile mujaho. Muna 1844, Steel Dust yakasvika muTexas uye makore mashoma gare gare Shilo akasvika, kubva kumubatanidzwa wemwanasikana wekutanga uye mwanakomana wechipiri, stallion Billy aizozvarwa kunobva iyo Texan Quarter Mahosi.

Zvinenge chaizvo muTexas kupi Rudzi urwu rwemabhiza rwakamira kungova rudzi rwepfupi, uye rwaizove rudzi rwekushamisa rwemabhiza emombe. Apa ndipo apo Quarter Mile yakaita mupiro wayo mukuru kune nyika yeindasitiri yezvipfuyo, nehunyanzvi hwayo hukuru mukuunganidza zvipfuyo.

kota bhiza

Mushure mehondo yevagari vemo, mapurazi emombe akatanga kubuda. Pakutanga, mombe dzaiunganidzwa musango, dzakasunganidzwa pamwe chete ndokuendeswa kumakorari. Kufambisa iyi mombe kuchamhembe kwenyika, vaishandisa njanji nzira kumaodzanyemba kweTexas. Kuuya kweQuarter Mile kwaive muchikamu chidiki shanduko. Ivo vafudzi vemombe vakawana hunyanzvi hwekuti rudzi urwu rwakaenzana kuti vaite basa pamapurazi, kusunga uye kufudza mombe, pamusoro pekukwikwidza mumijaho sezvavaive vachiita kusvika parizvino.

Kune iyi geneti kusanganiswa kweequines, kuona kusvika ikozvino, iwe unofanirwa kuwedzera imwezve kuti upedze rudzi rutsva urwu: iyo mustang. Aya mabhiza emusango anoyevedza akayambuka pamwe nevazukuru vaJanus naSir Archy, vachipedzisa Quarter Race.

Mu 1940, boka revanhu vane hukama nemabhiza kumaodzanyemba kwakadziva kumadokero kweUnited States, kusanganisira vafudzi nevafudzi, yakavamba iyo American Quarter Horse Association (AQHA) kuchengetedza dzinza reCowboy Quarter Horse.

Ndinovimba iwe wakanakidzwa nekuverenga ichi chinyorwa zvakanyanya sekuita kwandakaita kuchinyora.


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  1. Inotarisira iyo data: Miguel Ángel Gatón
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